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Schedule 1 (Form 1040): Additional Income and Adjustments to Income

Download Schedule 1 (Form 1040)

Filing taxes can be a complex process, especially when it comes to reporting additional income and making adjustments to your income. One crucial form to be aware of is Schedule 1 (Form 1040), which serves as an addendum to your individual income tax return.

Schedule 1 (Form 1040) is an attachment to your main tax return, Form 1040. It is used to report various types of additional income and adjustments to income that are not included on the main form. Schedule 1 provides a breakdown of specific income items and adjustments, ensuring that your tax return reflects your complete financial picture.

In this blog post, we will explore Schedule 1 in detail, focusing specifically on additional income and adjustments to income. Understanding these concepts and their proper reporting is essential for accurately filing your taxes and maximizing your deductions.

Purpose of Schedule 1 (Form 1040)

Schedule 1 is used when taxpayers have additional sources of income or need to make certain adjustments to their income that cannot be accommodated on the main Form 1040.

Some examples of additional income that may be reported on Schedule 1 include:

  1. Income from freelance work or self-employment
  2. Rental income from real estate or other properties
  3. Unemployment compensation
  4. Gambling winnings
  5. Partnership income or S corporation income

Additionally, Schedule 1 may be used to report adjustments to income. These adjustments include deductions that you may be eligible for, such as:

  1. Educator expenses
  2. Student loan interest deduction
  3. Health savings account (HSA) deductions
  4. Self-employed health insurance deduction
  5. Contributions to retirement plans
  6. Please note that tax laws and forms can change over time, and new versions of Schedule 1 may be released by the IRS

Benefits of Schedule 1 (Form 1040)

Here are some of the benefits of Schedule 1:

  1. Additional income reporting: Schedule 1 allows you to report additional types of income that may not be included on the main Form 1040. This includes income from sources such as rental properties, partnerships, S corporations, and royalties. By reporting all your income sources accurately, you can ensure compliance with tax laws and avoid potential penalties.

  2. Above-the-Line deductions: Schedule 1 provides a space for above-the-line deductions, also known as adjustments to income. These deductions are taken into account before calculating your adjusted gross income (AGI). Examples of above-the-line deductions include educator expenses, student loan interest deduction, self-employment tax, health savings account (HSA) contributions, and contributions to a traditional IRA.

  3. Additional tax credits: Certain tax credits, such as the additional child tax credit, the American opportunity credit, and the lifetime learning credit, are reported on Schedule 1. These credits can help reduce your overall tax liability and potentially result in a refund if you qualify.

  4. Other adjustments: Schedule 1 also covers various other adjustments to income, such as the deduction for self-employment tax, the deduction for health insurance premiums for self-employed individuals, and the deduction for contributions to a SEP, SIMPLE, or qualified retirement plan. These adjustments can help lower your taxable income and potentially reduce your tax burden.

  5. Foreign income and taxes: If you have foreign income or paid foreign taxes, Schedule 1 provides a section to report this information. This is important for individuals who have income from foreign sources or who may be eligible for certain foreign tax credits or exclusions.

  6. Partnership and S corporation income: If you are a partner in a partnership or a shareholder in an S corporation, Schedule 1 allows you to report your share of income, deductions, and credits from these entities. This ensures that your individual tax return reflects your ownership in these businesses.

Overall, Schedule 1 provides a comprehensive way to report additional income, deductions, and adjustments, allowing for a more accurate calculation of your tax liability. It helps ensure that you take advantage of all available deductions and credits, potentially reducing your tax burden or increasing your refund.

Who Is Eligible To File Schedule 1 (Form 1040)?

Here are some common situations where filing Schedule 1 may be necessary:

You have additional income sources: If you received income from sources other than your regular job, such as self-employment income, rental income, or unemployment compensation, you would need to file Schedule 1.

You have adjustments to income: Certain deductions and adjustments to your income require the use of Schedule 1. Examples include deductions for educator expenses, student loan interest, or contributions to a Health Savings Account (HSA).

You have additional tax credits: Certain tax credits, such as the Additional Child Tax Credit or the Adoption Credit, may require you to file Schedule 1 to calculate the credit.

You owe certain taxes: If you owe taxes like the self-employment tax, household employment taxes, or the individual shared responsibility payment (penalty for not having health insurance), you will need to file Schedule 1.

How To Complete Schedule 1 (Form 1040): A Step-by-Step Guide

Completing Schedule 1 (Form 1040) requires you to report additional income, deductions, and credits that are not included on the main Form 1040. Here's a step-by-step guide on how to complete Schedule 1:

Step 1: Gather the necessary documents

Collect all the relevant documents such as W-2 forms, 1099 forms, and any other income or expense-related documents that might affect Schedule 1.

Step 2: Fill out your personal information

Enter your name, Social Security number, and other personal details at the top of Schedule 1.

Step 3: Report additional income

If you have any additional sources of income that are not reported on Form 1040, report them on Schedule 1. Common examples include self-employment income, rental income, or unemployment compensation. Use the appropriate lines to report each type of income and provide the necessary information.

Step 4: Calculate adjustments to income

Certain deductions and adjustments are reported on Schedule 1. Here are some common examples:

Educator expenses: If you're a teacher, report your eligible expenses on line 10.

Health savings account (HSA) deductions: Report your HSA contributions on line 12.

Moving expenses: If you moved for a job, report your eligible expenses on line 18.

Self-employment tax: If you have self-employment income, calculate and report your self-employment tax on line 14.

Carefully review the available deductions and adjustments on Schedule 1 to see if any apply to your situation. Fill out the appropriate lines accordingly.

Step 5: Report other tax credits

Certain tax credits that are not accounted for on Form 1040 are reported on Schedule 1. Here are a few examples:

  • Additional child tax credit: Report any additional child tax credit you qualify for on line 19.
  • Residential energy credits: If you made energy-efficient home improvements, report the credits on line 24.
  • Foreign tax credit: If you paid foreign taxes, report the credit on line 25.

Check if you're eligible for any other tax credits and report them on the appropriate lines of Schedule 1.

Step 6: Calculate other payments and refundable credits

If you made any estimated tax payments or have any refundable credits, report them on Schedule 1. Common examples include overpayment from a prior year's return, the premium tax credit, or the net premium tax credit. Use the applicable lines to report these amounts.

Step 7: Review and attach Schedule 1

Double-check all the information you entered on Schedule 1 for accuracy. Once you're confident that everything is correct, attach Schedule 1 to your Form 1040 when filing your tax return.

Remember to keep copies of all the documents and forms you submit for your records.

Special Considerations When Filing Schedule 1 (Form 1040)

Here are some important points to consider:

Types of income: Schedule 1 is used to report various types of income, such as business income, rental income, unemployment compensation, gambling winnings, and other miscellaneous income. Make sure to accurately report all applicable sources of income.

Adjustments to income: Schedule 1 is also used to report certain adjustments to income. These adjustments include deductions for educator expenses, student loan interest, self-employment tax, health savings account contributions, and contributions to individual retirement accounts (IRAs) or self-employed retirement plans, among others.

Additional taxes: Certain taxes or penalties that are not reported directly on Form 1040 may need to be reported on Schedule 1. For example, if you owe the Additional Medicare Tax or the Net Investment Income Tax, you will report them on this schedule.

Foreign accounts and assets: If you have foreign financial accounts or meet certain criteria for reporting foreign assets, you may need to complete Schedule 1 and attach other forms like the FBAR (Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts) or Form 8938 (Statement of Specified Foreign Financial Assets).

Health care coverage: In previous years, Schedule 1 was also used to report health care coverage exemptions. However, starting from the 2020 tax year, these exemptions are no longer applicable, as the individual mandate penalty has been eliminated.

Other credits: Some tax credits, such as the residential energy credit or the adoption credit, may require information to be reported on Schedule 1. If you are eligible for these credits, ensure you accurately complete the necessary sections of the schedule.

How To File Schedule 1 (Form 1040): Offline/Online/E-filing

To file Schedule 1 (Form 1040), you have several options: offline paper filing, online filing, and e-filing. Here's a brief overview of each method:

Offline paper filing

  1. Obtain a copy of Form 1040 and Schedule 1 from the IRS website, local IRS office, or by requesting them to be mailed to you.
  2. Fill out the required information on both forms manually, following the instructions provided.
  3. Attach Schedule 1 to your completed Form 1040.
  4. Make a copy of the forms for your records.
  5. Mail the original forms to the appropriate IRS address based on your location. The address can be found in the instructions for Form 1040.

Online filing

  1. Use an online tax preparation software or a professional's website that supports the filing of Schedule 1.
  2. Enter your tax information into the software or website as prompted.
  3. The software will generate the necessary forms, including Schedule 1, based on your inputs.
  4. Review the forms for accuracy and completeness.
  5. Follow the instructions provided by the software or website to submit your tax return electronically.


  1. E-filing is the electronic submission of your tax return directly to the IRS.
  2. You can e-file through IRS Free File if your income is below a certain threshold. The IRS Free File program offers free tax preparation software for eligible taxpayers.
  3. Alternatively, you can use commercial tax preparation software or hire a tax professional who offers e-filing services.
  4. Provide your tax information to the software or tax professional, and they will generate the necessary forms, including Schedule 1.
  5. Review the forms for accuracy and completeness.
  6. Follow the instructions provided by the software or tax professional to securely transmit your tax return to the IRS.

Common Mistakes To Avoid While Filing Schedule 1 (Form 1040)

When filing Schedule 1 (Form 1040), there are several common mistakes that you should avoid to ensure accuracy and prevent potential issues with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Here are some mistakes to watch out for:

Incorrect personal information: Make sure to provide accurate personal information, including your name, Social Security number, and filing status. Double-check these details before submitting your form.

Failure to report all income: Ensure that you report all sources of income on Schedule 1. This includes income from employment, self-employment, rental properties, investments, and any other taxable income. Review your income statements (such as W-2s and 1099 forms) and ensure they are accurately reflected on Schedule 1.

Neglecting to claim deductions and credits: Take advantage of eligible deductions and tax credits to minimize your tax liability. Common deductions include student loan interest, educator expenses, and contributions to retirement accounts. Additionally, make sure to claim applicable tax credits, such as the Child Tax Credit or the Earned Income Tax Credit.

Failing to reconcile health coverage: If you had health insurance coverage through the Health Insurance Marketplace, ensure that you reconcile any advance payments of the premium tax credit you received. This is done on Form 8962, which is filed with your tax return. Failure to reconcile the credit accurately can result in delays or adjustments to your refund.

Mathematical errors: Be careful when performing calculations on Schedule 1. Simple math errors, such as addition or subtraction mistakes, can lead to discrepancies on your tax return. Double-check all calculations and use tax software or a calculator if necessary.

Missing signatures: Both you and your spouse (if applicable) must sign and date your tax return. Forgetting to sign the form can result in the IRS rejecting your filing. Ensure that all required signatures are provided before submitting your return.

Late or missing Schedule 1: If you have any additional items to report that require Schedule 1, ensure that you include it with your Form 1040. Forgetting to attach Schedule 1 when required can lead to processing delays or inquiries from the IRS.

Failure to retain documentation: Keep copies of all the relevant supporting documentation, such as income statements, receipts, and records of deductions and credits. This is important in case the IRS requests verification or in the event of an audit.

To minimize the chances of making these mistakes, consider using tax software or consulting a tax professional. They can provide guidance and help ensure that your Schedule 1 (Form 1040) is filed correctly.


Filing taxes requires accuracy and attention to detail, particularly when it comes to reporting additional income and adjustments to income. Schedule 1 (Form 1040) plays a crucial role in capturing these elements of your financial life that do not fit on the main tax return form. By understanding the different types of additional income you must report and the various adjustments to income available to you, you can ensure that your tax return is complete and accurate.

Remember, the information provided in this blog post is meant to serve as a general guide. Tax laws and regulations are subject to change, and individual circumstances may vary. It's always recommended to consult with a qualified tax professional or refer to the official IRS guidelines for the most up-to-date and personalized advice regarding your tax situation.