Trial Balance

A trial balance is a report that displays the balances in each general ledger account for a business at a certain point in time. Assets, liabilities, equity, revenues, expenses, gains, and losses are all significant accounting items that are connected to the accounts displayed on a trial balance. A trial balance is a report that shows the balances in all of a company's general ledger accounts at a certain point in time.

What Does A Trial Balance Include?

A list of all general ledger account totals is included in a trial balance.A distinct account number, a succinct account description, and a final debit/credit amount are required for each account. Included should be the final day of the accounting period for which the report is created. The key distinction between the trial balance and the general ledger is that the trial balance only displays the account totals, not each individual transaction, whereas the general ledger displays all transactions per account.

Finally, any correcting inputs must be shown on a trial balance. It should in this instance display the data prior to the adjustment, the adjusting entry, and the balances following the adjustment.

Types Of Trial Balance

Three primary varieties of trial balance exist:

  1. The unadjusted trial balance
  2. The adjusted trial balance
  3. The post-closing trial balance

These three categories are identical in format but utilized in slightly different ways. Before correcting journal entries are finished, the unadjusted trial balance is created on the spot. It serves as a log of daily transactions and can be used to correct entries in a ledger to bring it into balance.

An adjusted trial balance can be finished once a book is balanced. The final balances for each account are listed in this trial balance, which is also utilized to create the financial statements. The balances are displayed in the post-closing trial balance following the completion of the closing entries. Your first trial balance for the upcoming year is this one.

Undetectable Errors In A Trial Balance

A trial balance will reveal any mathematical problems in the general ledger.. Unfortunately, this report cannot identify a number of errors, including:

Error of omission: The transaction wasn't added to the database.

Error of original entry: The erroneous quantities are included on both sides of the double-entry transaction.

Error of reversal: When the exact amounts for a double-entry transaction are entered, but the account that should be debited is instead credited and the other way around.

Principle error: The transaction entered breaches the foundational rules of accounting. For instance, even if the money was entered correctly and the appropriate side was selected, the type of account was incorrect (e.g., expense account instead of liability account).

Commission error: Although the account that was debited or credited is incorrect, the transaction amount is accurate. Although it resembles the principle error mentioned above, commission error typically results from oversight, whereas principle error results from a lack of understanding of accounting principles.


The mathematical accuracy of a company's bookkeeping is checked using a trial balance, which is a spreadsheet with two columns—one for debits and one for credits.

Debits and credits contain all business transactions for a corporation over a certain time period, including the sum of accounts for assets, expenses, liabilities, and income.

In order to verify that there are no mathematical errors, the debits and credits of a trial balance must add up; nonetheless, there may still be faults or errors in the accounting processes.

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