Interim Financial Statements
Financial statements that span a shorter time period than a year are referred to as interim financial statements. Investors pay special attention to these since they provide information about the issuing entity's performance before the regular reporting year ends. Publicly traded corporations, who are obligated to release these statements on a quarterly basis, are where the term is most frequently used.
For the first, second, and third quarters of each year, these entities publish three sets of interim statements. The year-end financial statements cover the entire reporting period, so it is not thought of as being related to interim financial statements because it is covered by those documents.
Because it is released before year end, a quarterly report serves as an illustration of an interim statement.
The International Accounting Standards Board states that specific standards should be used while preparing interim financial statements (IASB). They are made up of a series of condensed statements that detail the company's financial situation, income, cash flows, and equity changes and include notes of explanation.
In addition, according to the IASB, businesses should apply comparable accounting techniques and adhere to the same standards when generating their interim financial reports as they do when preparing their annual reports (which are audited).
As opposed to waiting for year-end statements, which do not formally become accessible until months following year-end close, interim statements provide a more current glimpse into a company's operations. The monthly snapshots are helpful to investors when allocating investment capital, which increases market liquidity, a key objective of capital markets.
The quarterly report can be the most typical interim statement. A quarterly report is a condensed version of a company's quarterly release of unaudited financial statements, such as balance sheets, income statements, and cash flow statements (three months). These statements might also include year-to-date and comparative results in addition to quarterly numbers. The Securities Exchange Commission must receive all reports from publicly traded corporations.
The income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows are all parts of interim financial statements, just as they are in yearly financial statements. These papers' line items will correspond to those in annual financial statements as well. The sections listed below represent the primary distinctions between interim and annual statements.
In interim financial statements, several further disclosures are optional or can be included in a more condensed manner.
Within intermediate reporting periods, different bases may be used to calculate accrued expenses. For instance, an expense may be recognised totally in one reporting period or in a number of reporting months. When compared across intermediate periods, these problems may give the impression that the results and financial circumstances are inconsistent.
Seasonality may have a substantial impact on how much money a company makes. If this is the case, interim financial statements may show periods of significant losses and profits that are not obvious in annual financial statements.
Most often, interim financial statements are not audited. Only the year-end financial statements are audited due to the expense and time involved in an audit. Instead, the quarterly financial statements of a publicly traded corporation are examined. External auditors carry out reviews, however they are far more condensed than audits in terms of the activities they cover.
Financial statements prepared by businesses for periods shorter than a year are known as interim statements.
The aim is to timely notify the public of major changes to the company and to keep shareholders and analysts more informed and in regular contact with corporate management.
Companies frequently utilize quarterly reports, and the SEC may occasionally require them.