Debt overhang is a term used to describe a debt load that is so heavy that a business cannot take on further debt to finance upcoming initiatives. This includes businesses that are successful enough to gradually reduce their debt. Because all profits from new projects would go to the holders of existing debt, a corporation with a debt overhang would have little desire and ability to try to climb out of the hole it is in. This discourages current investment.
An entity is said to be under a debt overhang when it has an excessive amount of debt and is unable to borrow further money. Because the debt load is so heavy, all profits are used to pay down the existing debt rather than investing in new initiatives, increasing the risk of default. Because shareholders can be responsible for losses, they frequently hesitate to support fresh stock issuances.
Sovereign governments are likewise subject to debt overhangs. In these situations, the phrase alludes to a scenario where a country's debt surpasses its ability to pay it back in the future. This can happen as a result of a production gap or economic underemployment that is continually closed by the issuance of new credit. Reduced funding for investment in vital areas like healthcare, education, and infrastructure can result in stagnant growth and a decline in living standards.
Debt overhangs can harm companies in many ways due to the way they impact balance sheets and bottom lines. They may lead to a halt in future expenditure and/or investment by businesses and nations. In actuality, they might result in underinvestment. Debt overhangs can complicate recovery since they can stifle growth.
The spending power of a corporation is significantly impacted by the substantial amount of debt. This hampers its ability to operate optimally due to the necessity of cost reduction measures. Consequently, it adversely affects the production process and impedes the company's expansion.
The current high level of debt signals a potential default risk for the company. Consequently, investors may hesitate to support new initiatives aimed at revitalizing the company. Furthermore, banks may refrain from lending money and, if they do, they might demand higher interest rates.
Equity investors, mindful of the losses incurred by previous equity holders, may show little interest in issuing additional stocks to rejuvenate the company.
A debt overhang can trap businesses because a larger share of sales or cash flow is used to pay off the company's existing debt. The only way to close this growing shortfall is by taking on further debt, which just adds to a company's burden.
A debt overhang is especially challenging since it restricts businesses' ability to seize fresh opportunities with a positive net present value (NPV). Although these possible developments may eventually pay for itself under more normal circumstances, a company's rising existing debt position may deter potential investors from the project.
The NPV is likely to be negative as it's reasonable to expect that the company's debt holders will have claims to a portion or all of the earnings generated by the new project
A corporation incurs an excessive amount of debt when it borrows more money than it can afford to pay back. It could be difficult to convince investors to contribute money to fresh initiatives with a positive NPV that could aid in the corporation making back its losses.
Debt overhang is a term that also applies to sovereign states, particularly developing countries. When a nation borrows more money than it can afford to repay, this happens.
Insufficient finance and reluctance to issue additional stocks can be caused by debt overhang, which can lead to underinvestment. Additionally, it can cause the company to make risky choices that, if wrong, could result in even greater debt.